Malcolm X (1925-1965) was an activist and spokesperson for the Nation of Islam.His philosophy challenged the non-violent methods employed by Martin Luther King. This does not mean he wanted to terrorize whites as the media falsely portrayed. It means that the African American community must defend itself when the government or law enforcement refuses to do so. The Civil Rights Movement was struggling and the federal government was hesitant to take action against segregation in the South. Only when African Americans mobilized themselves did it pressure both the Kennedy and Johnson administrations.